Facet Publishing have announced the release of the second edition of Information Resource Description: Creating and managing metadata.
The second edition of Information Resource Description provides an overview of the range of activities and the products of these activities collectively referred to as ‘information organization’ and will be ideal for LIS students, information professionals wishing to specialise in this field, and existing metadata specialists who wish to update their knowledge.
Author Philip Hider said, “While much of the general thrust of the first edition of this book remains applicable, some of the specifics have changed in significant ways since it was published in 2012. The library cataloguing code, Resource Description and Access, has now been adopted by most libraries in the English-speaking world, and related standards such as BIBFRAME are coming into view as more concrete propositions. The book is fully updated to reflect these changes.”
The book explains how the various elements and values of descriptive metadata support a set of common information retrieval functions across a wide range of environments. Through this unifying framework, the book provides an integrated commentary of the various fields and practices of information organization carried out by today’s information professionals and end-users.
Key topics and updates to the first edition include:
- discussion of big data vs the traditional database model
- introduces and applies the FRBR-LRM user tasks
- expanded coverage of scholarly repositories and questions around Open Access
- new section on the history of information organization
- expanded discussion of the functions, economics and management of metadata
- a new section on mobile access.
David Bawden, Professor of Information Science at City, University of London and co-editor of Facet’s Foundations of the Information Sciences series, said, “As we enter the infosphere, and documents in an increasing variety of forms and media become ever more essential for our society, so the problems of organizing information increase. This second edition of Philip Hider’s book addresses one essential component: the organizing of information resources through their description. Its focus on general principles expressed in different contexts, and its equal treatment of systems, sources and processes, makes it a valuable addition to the Foundations of the Information Sciences series.”
Information Resource Description: Creating and managing metadata | October 2018 | 288pp | paperback: 9781783302239 | £59.95 | hardback: 9781783302246 | £119.95 | eBook: 9781783302253
Philip Hider is Head of the School of Information Studies and Professor of Library and Information Management at Charles Sturt University, Australia. He has worked, taught and researched in the field of information organization in the UK, Singapore and Australia. He holds a PhD from City University, London and was made a Fellow of CILIP in 2004.
The book is published by Facet Publishing and is available from Bookpoint Ltd | Tel: +44 (0)1235 827702 | Fax: +44 (0)1235 827703 | Email: firstname.lastname@example.org | Web: www.facetpublishing.co.uk. | Mailing Address: Mail Order Dept, 39 Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4TD. It is available in North America from the American Library Association.
This practical guide is a must-read for data leaders building the foundation of value creation from data.
– Katia Walsh, Chief Global Data and Analytics Officer, Vodafone
Written by two practising CDOs, The Chief Data Officer’s Playbook offers a jargon-free, practical guide to making better decisions based on data.
The Kindle edition of the Playbook is available for £9.99/$12.99/EUR 9.99 (or your equivalent local price) until Friday 30th November. This is a saving of 75% of the usual price.
Use the links below to order today from your local Amazon Kindle store:
The Chief Data Officer’s Playbook is the best overall resource available for CDOs and their teams. The release of this book is perfectly timed. The CDO Club tracks CDO hires globally, and last year alone the number of new CDO hires quintupled. The Playbook is a compendium of essential knowledge anyone operating in the current data environment must have.
– David Mathison, Chairman, CEO and Founder, CDO Club/CDO Summit
Without any doubt, this playbook is a must read for the primary audience, the CDOs. In my opinion, it is equally a must read for the secondary audience, the C-Suite, for the insight on how the role complements their businesses.
– Sham Kashikar, ex-Chief Data Officer, Sales & Marketing, Intel
Facet Publishing announce the release of Bibliotherapy, edited by Sarah McNicol and Liz Brewster.
Bibliotherapy has developed over the past 100 years, but the premise remains the same: that information, guidance, and solace can be found in books. Bibliotherapy schemes have been offered in UK public libraries and healthcare and community settings since the early 2000s, providing access to selected written materials which it is hoped will have a positive effect on mental health and wellbeing.
Liz Brewster and Sarah McNicol’s new book explores the history and theory of bibliotherapy for the first time, illustrating the contemporary debates amongst researchers and explaining how these relate to the work of bibliotherapy practitioners. A key focus of the book is on methods of offering bibliotherapy for diverse audiences, including homeless populations, psychiatric patients, non-native speakers and people living with dementia.
Bob Usherwood, Professor Emeritus at The University of Sheffield said,
“This life-affirming text is essential reading not only for those concerned with bibliotherapy but for all who believe in the value and potential of library services in the modern world. Library Task Force members please note!”
The book includes case studies from around work illustrating how particular approaches to bibliotherapy can be used across different settings including, communities living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa, homeless people in Australia, socially vulnerable patients, particularly those with drug-use problems in Uruguay and speakers of English as an additional language in England.
The editors said,
“Our aim is that this book contributes to the ongoing debates about the theory of bibliotherapy and its practical application. By focusing on the theoretical basis and history of bibliotherapy, as well as current practitioners”.
The book will be of interest to researchers and theorists, those managing bibliotherapy programmes in health, public and academic libraries and healthcare providers and those with an interest in wellbeing more generally.
Bibliotherapy | August 2018 | 208pp | paperback: 9781783303410 | £64.95 | hardback: 9781783303427 | £129.95 | eBook: 9781783303434
About the editors
Sarah McNicol is a Research Associate at the Education and Social Research Institute, Manchester Metropolitan University. She has worked as an Information Studies researcher since 2000 and she previously worked as a school librarian. At present, much of her research is focused around the use of graphic comics and novels to explore a range of issues, in particular health and wellbeing.
Liz Brewster is a Lecturer at Lancaster Medical School, Lancaster University. Her research focuses on experiences of mental health and wellbeing, particularly how creative activities such as reading may affect mental health. She has previously worked in academic and public libraries.
- Natalia Tukhareli
- Fiona Bailey
- Susan McLaine
- Elizabeth Mackenzie
- David Chamberlain
- Cristina Deberti Martins
- Rosie May Walworth
- Kate Gielgud
- Elena Azadbakht
- Tracy Englert.
Guest post by Geoffrey Yeo, author of Records, Information and Data: Exploring the role of record-keeping in an information culture
If you look at older books about record-keeping (Hilary Jenkinson’s famous 1922 Manual of Archive Administration, for example), you may notice that information is hardly mentioned at all. Even in the 1970s, when I was among a bunch of students learning about archives and records management, the tutors who instructed us rarely said anything that linked records with information.
But in today’s discussions of record-keeping we hear about information all the time. Some records professionals say that records – and archives – contain information. Some say that records are a kind of information: a kind that needs to be managed in a special way. Others say that ‘information objects’ become records when someone selects them for preservation or captures them in a record-keeping system; or that information is a record when it can be used as evidence. And growing numbers of records managers now affirm that distinctions between records and information are of little importance, that they are disappearing, or that no-one cares about them any longer.
Something very interesting is going on. Records professionals are putting forward a great variety of opinions, but they all connect records – in one way or another – to information. It becomes even more interesting when you look at some of the things that philosophers have said about information. John Searle describes information as ‘one of the most confused and ill-defined notions in contemporary intellectual life’. Fred Dretske points out that ‘if you think information is important … you must have some vague idea of what it is. … It is easy enough to find people who think they know what it is, but very hard to find two people who agree.’ If information is such a nebulous and precarious concept, why does it have such a high profile? Why have records professionals given it so much emphasis in recent years?
Of course, the records profession isn’t the only professional group that has chosen to frame its practices in terms of ‘information’. Librarians, data analysts, statisticians, knowledge managers and computer scientists all claim that their work is focused on information and its capture, control or use. As Dretske puts it, ‘a lot of people these days want their product to be (or at least be intimately related to) information. So everybody ends up talking about his or her product as information. … There is a mess in this area and, as a result, a lot of confusion’.
I’ve explored these questions in my new book Records, Information and Data (Facet Publishing, 2018). In the book, I look at when and how concepts of information (and information management) became fashionable among records professionals. I also investigate the question of how records and information are, or might be, related: a question that isn’t as easy to answer as it might seem. I argue that seeing records in terms of information doesn’t give us a full picture of how records operate. Undoubtedly, users of records may view them as informative. But at the moment of their creation, records aren’t just a matter of information; they have distinctive roles in performing social actions. Many kinds of actions – some simple, others more complex – can be performed using records, and defining records as information crucially overlooks their performative aspects. People may expect to gain information from using records, but information and records aren’t identical. Information isn’t what records contain, or what records are; it’s an intangible benefit that records can offer to their users.
Not everyone will agree with my conclusions. Some, I’m sure, will violently disagree. I’d like to know what other people think. And I’d like to know whether reading my book helps them to focus their thoughts on the place of records and record-keeping in today’s society.
About the author
Geoffrey Yeo is an Honorary Senior Research Fellow at University College London. He writes about many different aspects of archives and records management. His personal webpage is at https://www.ucl.ac.uk/information-studies/geoffrey-yeo.
J. Searle, Making the Social World (Oxford University Press, 2010), p.71
F. Dretske, ‘The Metaphysics of Information’, in Wittgenstein and the Philosophy of Information, ed. A. Pichler & H. Hrachovec (Ontos, 2008), pp.273-4.
Facet Publishing have announced the release of Coding with XML for Efficiencies in Cataloguing and Metadata: Practical applications of XSD, XSLT, and XQuery by Timothy W. Cole, Myung-Ja (MJ) K. Han and Christine Schwartz.
XML and its ancillary technologies XSD, XSLT and XQuery enables librarians to take advantage of powerful, XML-aware applications, facilitates the interoperability and sharing of XML metadata, and makes it possible to realize the full promise of XML to support more powerful and more efficient library cataloguing and metadata workflows.
Coding with XML for Efficiencies in Cataloguing and Metadata illustrates with examples how XML and associated technologies can be used to edit metadata at scale, streamline and scale up metadata and cataloguing workflows and to extract, manipulate, and construct MARC records and other formats and types of library metadata.
The authors said,
“This is a work written by practitioners, intended for practitioners and especially for librarians new to the field who need to come up to speed quickly on XML and how it is used by libraries today. While by no means the only technology arrow in the modern–day cataloguer’s or metadata librarian’s knowledge and skills quiver, a firm understanding of XML remains relevant and helpful for those working in modern bibliographic control or with information discovery services.”
Containing 58 sample coding examples throughout, the book covers:
- essential background information, with a quick review of XML basics
- transforming XML metadata in HTML
- schema languages and workflows for XML validation
- an introduction to XPath and XSLT
- cataloguing workflows using XSLT
- the basics of XQuery, including use cases and XQuery expressions and functions
- working with strings and sequences, including regular expressions.
Timothy W Cole is Professor of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Myung-Ja (MJ) K Han is a Metadata Librarian and Associate Professor of Library Administration at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Christine Schwartz is a Metadata Librarian and XML Database Administrator at Princeton Theological Seminary.
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To finish up Preservation Week we’ve got a re-post of an article that Michele Cloonan wrote for CILIP in 2016 about the destruction of cultural heritage.
The title of a recent book by Alicia Ely Yamin, Power, Suffering, and the Struggle for Dignity: Human Rights Frameworks for Health and Why They Matter (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015), caught my eye. The book focuses on human-rights-based approaches to health and development. “The ultimate concern” of the book, to quote from the publisher’s blurb, “is to promote movement from analysis to action, so that we can begin to use human rights frameworks to effect meaningful social change in global health, and beyond.” Could the phrase “preservation of cultural heritage” be substituted in the title of a hypothetically titled parallel book?
Most of us don’t equate preservation with human rights
While most of us don’t equate preservation with human rights, the relationship has been touched on at least as early as the nineteenth century—although the destruction of cultural heritage has taken place for as long as there has been heritage. In the nineteenth century the concept of human rights was considered in the context of war. Swiss businessman and reformer Henri Dunant was an organiser of the First Geneva Conference for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded Armies in the Field (1863-64) and a founder of the Red Cross (see his Memory of Solferino [Geneva, Switzerland: International Committee of the Red Cross, 1986]).
At just about the same time as these activities were taking place in Europe, Francis Lieber, a German jurist who settled in the United States, prepared for the Union Army General Orders No. 100: Instructions for the Government of the Armies of the United States in the Field, better known as the Lieber Code; it established rules for the humane treatment of civilians in areas of conflict and forbade the execution of prisoners of war. Further it sought the protection of works of art, scientific collections, and hospitals in war-torn areas. These ideas were further developed in the Hague Peace Conferences that were held from 1899-1907 and in the later Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1954 and the 1999 Second Protocol). Excerpts of these codes, conventions, and protocols are included in chapter 9 of my Preserving Our Heritage: Perspectives from Antiquity to the Digital Age (London: Facet, 2015).
Why can’t we protect cultural heritage?
Since the publication of my book—and as armed conflicts in the Middle East have escalated, and countless works of heritage continue to be destroyed—I have found myself continuing to think about the relationship between human rights and preservation. Why can’t we protect cultural heritage? It is not that international efforts haven’t been made; International Humanitarian Law seeks to balance humanitarian concerns with military necessity. Yet over and over again the world watches as cultural heritage is destroyed—often in dramatic and defiant ways. Most of the perpetrators will never be charged, let alone tried.
This destruction is sometimes described as cultural genocide. The term genocide was coined by jurist and human rights advocate Raphael Lemkin (1900-1959). It is based on the Greek word genos (race, tribe) and the Latin caedere (killing). (See his 1944 book Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation, Analysis of Government, Proposals for Redress, 2nd ed. [Clark, NJ: The Lawbook Exchange, 2008, pp. 79-95.) He meant for genocide to correspond to such words as homicide, infanticide, fratricide, and so on. In Axis Rule Lemkin identified eight components of genocide, which he reduced to three when he was campaigning for a Genocide Convention: physical, biological, and cultural.
Significantly, for Lemkin the term referred to human massacre as well as the destruction of a people’s art and culture. In other words, genocide represented crimes against humans as well as humanity. Lemkin was determined that genocide be adopted by the United Nations as the word to describe these crimes. And it was, in The United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948). However, for reasons that I explain in my forthcoming book, Monumental Preservation, the term was defined more narrowly to refer only to mass killings and not the often concomitant crime of destroying the culture of the vanquished people. Since the framing of that U.N. document, and after Lemkin’s death, the term cultural genocide was coined to refer to the destruction of cultural heritage.
Cultural genocide is not yet recognised in international law
Cultural genocide per se is not yet recognised in international law. Yet that is beginning to change as international courts are recognizing that physical and biological attacks are often carried out in concert with the destruction of religious and/or cultural property (see Shamiran Mako, “Cultural Genocide and Key International Instruments: Framing the Indigenous Experience,” International Journal on Minority and Group Rights 19 : 175-94, about post WWII efforts to acknowledge the rights of indigenous peoples). It is probably only a matter of time before a case involving cultural genocide is successfully tried.
However, international laws will never stop the seemingly ongoing destruction of heritage sites. Nor will “soft power,” the attempt by organisations such as UNESCO “to create the conditions for dialogue among civilizations, cultures, and peoples, based on respect for commonly shared values” (see the UNESCO website). And what if there are not always shared values? UNESCO has been criticised for promoting Western—even European—notions of heritage in the non-western world (e.g., Rodney Harrison, Heritage:Critical Approaches [London: Routledge, 2013]).
What if the group that sets out to destroy cultural heritage creates its own grand narrative about the importance of that destruction? For example, if one group seeks to impose its identity on another by destroying the culture of the vanquished group? Has UNESCO framed the notion of universally shared heritage in the most effective way? Every new country, era, civilization is the accretion of everything tangible and intangible that has come before. It will almost never be possible to completely vanquish that which has come before us.
Perhaps we can model preservation itself in a more nuanced way. Below are some of the motivations and behaviors associated with preservation, as well as some emerging approaches to preservation.
- Corporate (profit motive, e.g. Facebook, Inc.)
- Corporate (legacy/history/pride/archives/records/memory)
- Social [as distinct from cultural]
- Personal (preserving family papers, mementos)
- Administrative (legal or political mandate)
- Deterministic (preservation as destiny)
- Save what we can profit most by
- [Or destroy, for almost all of the above reasons]
- Imperialist (we came, we saw, we conquered, we appropriated/expropriated cultural heritage objects)
- Hording or clean-sweep approach: save everything you can
- Last-ditch effort: save anything you can (war-time approach, or in historic preservation, wrecking-ball approach)
- Save last copies
- People’s choice: save the best (“doxa” or popular opinion)
- Judgmental: save according to carefully delineated criteria
- Elitist: we save what should be saved & for whom it should be saved
- Principle of Least Effort : we won’t bother with it until we have to. (Or, we will save only that which has already deteriorated.)
- Benign neglect (perhaps less intentional than the Principle of Least Effort)
- Administrative: save what must be saved
- Pragmatic: save at a measured rate
- Stewardship: we have a responsibility to save
- Save: but we continue to use it—and museums must understand that
- Don’t save: it has fulfilled its earthly purpose
- Don’t save: its survival is anathema to our beliefs
- Don’t save: we have a right to destroy it
- Social networking: positive and negative (records destruction and promotes propaganda)
- Personal Information Management (PIM)
- Attempt to create true digital preservation
- Reformatting into the future best forms of “preservation” for specific kind of data audiences
- Enhanced tools for documentation
- New tools for community engagement and outreach
- [For example, the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear 3/11/11 disaster, in which citizens
- recovered thousands of photographs on land and in the water, and put them up on the web. In some instances families and their photos have been reunited.] These are some of the ways in which I have tried to situate preservation on the global stage. I welcome your feedback about other ways in which we can think about the role of preservation in our lives.
These are some of the ways in which I have tried to situate preservation on the global stage. I welcome your feedback about other ways in which we can think about the role of preservation in our lives.
Follow Preservation Week on Twitter using the hashtag
#preswk and look out for our other author interviews that we will be releasing throughout the week.
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- “henry-dunant-francis-lieber.jpg” by icrc, used under CC BY-SA 2.0
- “Francis Lieber – Brady-Handy.jpg” by Mathew Brady, used under Public Domain
“Giant standing Buddhas of Bamiyan still cast shadows [Image 2 of 8]” by DVIDSHUB, used under CC BY 2.0 / original cropped and resized
1. In your view, why is preservation awareness so important?
So many institutions today are pushing for a paperless society: for example, banks frequently suggest getting online statements in order to save trees, paper and postage. This is all very well if everyone is confident that ALL the necessary digital records are kept safely, and will be readable in the future. This is a considerable challenge, however, and if you consider the effort required in keeping digital art, computer games, and the 3D models that you might see in a museum, then it just gets harder. However, libraries, archives and museums across Europe have been working concertedly over the last two decades to tackle these issues, so help is at hand. For the rest of us, it is vital that people in all walks of life become aware of the fragility and difficulties of keeping hold of their material, and realise that whilst our digital lives bring many benefits in terms of searching and accessing material, this does come with a price concerning the maintenance of the data and their platforms. Companies need to keep their digital records, individuals will want to safeguard their personal digital memories etc.
2. What are some ways that libraries and archives can reach out to communities about the importance of preservation?
My own experience is of working with national libraries, archives and museums to help develop fundamental solutions to preservation problems. I am aware that these national bodies then communicate with regional, local and commercial bodies through their normal channels to raise awareness about the importance of preservation. The national bodies are also good at reaching individuals through their excellent websites (the British Library, the National Archives with their new digital strategy which mentions the E-ARK project), and the Parliamentary Archives are all excellent at communicating all things digital). Regional and local libraries/archives can then reach out to their immediate communities to pass on this knowledge. There are also dedicated organisations such as the Digital Preservation Coalition who are reaching out to many communities, including the banking sector, mentioned above in 1.
3. Digital collections are growing fast, and their formats are prone to obsolescence. What are some current or proposed digital collection initiatives from cultural institutions that give you hope for the future?
The British Library Digital Scholarship area has a programme “Innovate with British Library collections and data”. The web page shows a collection of initiatives that give me hope for the future: help with research, help with digitisation, support with collections, staff training, the THOR project which focuses on persistent identifiers – so that we can find digital objects in the future (important for collections and also the Internet of Things). Also the E-ARK project mentioned above which took the first big step in addressing the need for common standards and systems for archiving digital records.
Janet Anderson (formerly Delve) is Professor of Digital Humanities at the University of Brighton, a field she has been researching for the last 20 years, developing fundamentally new methods/technologies to keep alive our digital cultural heritage: digital art, computer games or 3D models of archaeological sites.
David Anderson leads the interdisciplinary Future Proof Computing Group at the University of Brighton and is Project Quality Manager for the E-Ark project, a multinational big data research project that aims to improve the methods and technologies of digital archiving, in order to achieve consistency on a Europe-wide scale.
Follow Preservation Week on Twitter using the hashtag
#preswk and look out for our other author interviews that we will be releasing throughout the week.