Critical literacy is an approach to learning and teaching that has gathered momentum in recent years as it has become widely used in classrooms around the world. Critical literacy is not just important for formal education settings however. It is also relevant for libraries because it is an approach that can engage students (or other users) in more active forms of reading and more creative ways of critiquing texts, as well as equipping them with skills and strategies to challenge social and political systems.
What is critical literacy?
Critical literacy differs from most models of information literacy because it is not simply about the ability to evaluate information for features such as authenticity, quality, relevance, accuracy, currency, value, credibility and potential bias. Instead, it addresses more fundamental questions about the nature of knowledge.
One way of describing critical literacy is as a process that, ‘challenges the status quo in an effort to discover alternative paths for self and social development’ (Shor, 1999). This description highlights two key components of critical literacy. Firstly, it has a focus on practical action and community engagement. Secondly, critical literacy is concerned with the social and cultural contexts in which traditional, digital, multimedia and other types of texts are both created and read. Critical literacy is not about studying texts in isolation, but developing an understanding of the cultural, ideological and sociolinguistic contexts in which they are created and read. It involves an explicit commitment to equity, social justice and inclusion.
Authors and readers
A fundamental notion of critical literacy is that all texts are constructed(by one or more authors) and serve particular interests or purposes. As texts are written or created by people, who all have their own views of the world, no text is completely neutral and objective. For example, when they write, an author makes conscious and unconscious choices about what to include and exclude and how to represent the things or people they depict.
However, it is not just the author who has an important role. Just like authors, all readers have their own experiences and knowledge whichthey bring to a text. This means that each person interprets a text differently and multiple ways of reading a single text are not just possible, but inevitable. In contrast to more conventional approaches to resource evaluation, with critical literacy there is no single ‘correct’ way to read and respond to a text.
This means that critical literacy can allow students to move beyond merely retelling information to become actively engaged with texts as they start to exercise their power as readers to interrogate what is written and question the ideological standpoint of the author to form their own interpretations. Critical literacy also helps students to see connections between texts they read and the ‘real world’ as they come to realise how the experiences and opinions of both the author and reader are integral in shaping any text.
Some practical examples
Critical literacy is a theory that is highly relevant to the practical work of library and information workers across all sectors including academic, schools, public, workplace, prisons and health. In the case of public libraries, it can support social inclusion activities and offer alternative ways of framing reading promotion. In healthcare settings, critical literacy approaches can empower patients and challenge stigma. When working with young offenders, or at-risk young people, critical literacy can help to improve decision-making skills. In schools, it can have a role both within subjects such as Communication studies and in extra-curricular activities. It can also enhance the school librarian’s role within the school as they become engage in debates around the use of new media and academic honesty. When working with both undergraduate and post-graduate university students, critical literacy can move the librarian’s contribution to the learning process far beyond the simplistic database demonstration session to a more active, questioning approach that can profoundly impact on how students interact with information. Critical literacy can also support librarians’ work with particular user groups. For example, in the case of international students, disabled users; or adult learners, critical literacy can help to reframe difference as an asset rather than a deficit.
There is no doubt that adopting a critical literacy approach in a library setting can be highly challenging. Teaching students that there is no single ‘correct’ way to read a text and that evaluating a resource is not a process which can be reduce to a simple checklist requires considerable time, skill and confidence. However, the potential benefits can be immense.
These are just some brief examples of the ways in which critical literacy can be used within libraries and information services. Is your library using (or planning to use) critical literacy approaches in any way? If so, please let us know.
Critical Literacy for Information Professionals, edited by Sarah McNicol, provides a foundation of critical literacy theory, as applied to libraries, combines theory and practice to explore critical literacy in relation to different user groups, and offers practical ways to introduce critical literacy approaches in libraries.
Sarah McNicol is a research associate at the Education and Social Research Institute, Manchester Metropolitan University, UK.
This blog post originally appeared on the CILIP blog in March 2016. You can view the original post here: https://www.cilip.org.uk/blog/why-should-critical-literacy-matter-information-professionals
Guest post by Nicole E. Brown and Kaila Bussert, co-authors of Visual Literacy for Libraries: A Practical, Standards-Based Guide
Celebrate Global Media and Information Literacy Week by strengthening your visual literacy skill set. Try this step-by-step exercise, adapted from the “Begin to Interpret and Analyze an Image” “Coffee Break!” activity in our book, Visual Literacy for Libraries.
Begin by setting aside a few minutes at your desk. You’ll need: the device you’re reading this on, a writing implement, a piece of paper, and a cup of coffee (optional, but recommended).
Step 1: Choose a visual to analyze.
- Option A: Explore the World Digital Library (WDL) and select an image. This free multilingual source for primary materials is one of our top picks for finding images, so we encourage you to use it. If you’re pressed for time, you can use the coffee house image featured in this post.
- Option B: Explore The Guardian’s Data Blog and select a data visualisation from one of the topical articles. Visual literacy skills apply to the world of data, too! If you’re short on time, choose one of the visualisations in the “Caffeine compared: from coke and coffee to aspirin and chocolate” post.
Step 2: Take a few minutes to examine the image or visualisation closely and record your answers to the following questions: 1) What do I see? 2) What is going on? 3) Why do I think this image or visualisation was created?
Step 3: Reflect on your answers to the three questions and identify one thing you’d like to know more about.
Now, consider how you might incorporate an exercise like this into your information literacy teaching practice. Imagine leading a group of students through this process with an image related to course content. Can you see how observing an image and recording details about it can prime learners to ask questions? This type of work with images invites students into the question-driven research process. Our book walks you through activities like this, and many more. We share ready-to-go activities and strategies to deepen your visual literacy skills and make your instruction more engaging.
Thanks for taking a coffee break with us! Please use the comments to share how you’re using visual literacy to advance media and information literacy.
Nicole E. Brown is Head of Instruction Services at the University of California, Berkeley.
Kaila Bussert is Foundational Experiences Librarian at California Polytechnic State University.
This new book explores critical literacy theory and provides practical guidance to how it can be taught and applied in libraries.
The approach taken in critical literacy is not to read texts in isolation, but to develop an understanding of the cultural, ideological and sociolinguistic contexts in which they are created and read.
The book introduces critical literacy concepts in ways that are accessible to readers who are new to the subject while also appealing to those with greater knowledge by exploring critical literacy from a range of theoretical perspectives and linking these ideas to current debates in information studies.
Critical Literacy for Information Professionals also contains a series of practically-focussed case studies that describe tools or approaches that librarians have used to engage users in critical literacy. Drawing on examples from across library sectors including schools, public libraries, universities, workplaces and healthcare, these illustrate how critical literacy can be applied across a variety of library settings, including online and new media environments.
The book will be essential reading for librarians, information professionals and managers in all sectors, students of library and information science, school and higher education teachers and researchers.